If you liked The Orphan Master’s Son, some other books I recommend:
An Untamed State by Roxane Gay
How to Get Filthy Rich in Rising Asia by Mohsin Hamid
Ghana Must Go by Taiye Selasi
Each of these novels (like Orphan Master’s Son) takes us to a place most of us don’t know well and makes it rich and vibrant and complicated and human.
Exposure: The beginning of a great photo
Sill Level: Beginner
Getting a proper exposure is at the heart of all photography. I will now attempt to explain it in the simplest terms possible.
You camera has a sensor.
This sensor collects light. Too much light and the image is bright or “overexposed.” Not enough light and your image is dark or “underexposed.”
There are 3 main elements that determine your exposure: aperture, shutter speed, and ISO.
The aperture is just an adjustable hole inside your lens that lets in light.
The bigger the hole, the more light it can let in. The smaller the hole, the less light it can let in.
Aperture is measured in f-stops. This indicates the size of the hole. Though it seems backwards, a lower number means a bigger hole. A higher number means a smaller hole.
Your lens will be rated with its maximum aperture. So if it is a “17-55mm f/4 lens”—that means f/4 is the biggest hole it can make. Most lenses can go to f/22, which would be the smallest hole it can make.
A “fast lens” is one that has a very large maximum aperture. These lenses have an f-stop of 2.8 or lower. They are great for doing photography in low light.
A large aperture (low f-stop number) can also give you shallow depth of field. This allows you to make your background blurry to better isolate your subjects.
This is a very desirable thing for many photographers, so they try to get the fastest lens they can.
Shutter speed is how long your sensor is exposed to light. Think of two sliding doors in front of the sensor. They open, let in light, and then close. A fast shutter speed lets in very little light. A slow shutter speed lets in a lot of light.
Shutter speed is measured in seconds. A fast shutter speed will be a fractional value, like 1/500th of a second. A slow shutter speed can be entire seconds.
Your camera might display fractions as just the bottom number in the fraction. So 1/500th would just show as 500. Whole seconds will have a double quotation mark after. So 5 seconds will appear as 5”.
Faster shutter speeds let in less light, but will allow you to freeze action.
Slower shutter speeds let in more light, allowing you to take images in darker environments. With a long enough exposure, you can make night look like day.
With slow shutter speeds you risk your image blurring due to your hands shaking the camera or movement of the subjects in your photos. So if you do a long exposure, you will almost certainly need a very still subject and a tripod.
There is a formula for keeping camera shake from blurring your photo. You just put 1 over the length of your lens. So if your lens is 50mm, you need a shutter speed of 1/50th or faster. Note: This will not stop blurring due to your subject moving.
ISO is the amplification of your sensor. Similar to the volume knob on your radio, ISO amplifies the sensitivity of the sensor so you can increase your shutter speed or make your aperture smaller. It makes the light “louder.” However, this can come at a cost. The more you amplify the sensor, the more noise will show up in your image.
Some cameras can go to a very high ISO and have very little noise. These cameras are usually frickin’ expensive. As technology advances, cheaper cameras get better and have less noise at higher ISOs.
Getting the Balance
A proper exposure requires balancing aperture, shutter speed, and ISO to get your desired result.
To get shallow depth of field you’ll need a large aperture. So you make your f-stop the lowest number possible. But that lets in a lot of light, so you need a fast shutter speed to balance it out.
To take a long exposure, your shutter speed will now let in a ton of light. To keep from overexposing you may need to make your aperture very small so the image does not overexpose.
If it is darker and things are moving, you’ll need a fast shutter speed and a large aperture. But you can’t get a fast enough shutter speed to avoid blur. So you raise your ISO to amplify the light, allow you to get the proper exposure, and keep your subjects from blurring. Yes, it will cause your image to have some noise, but it is a worthy compromise to get the image you desire.
Photography is often about making compromises. Sacrificing a little bit of quality in one area to create the intended effect with a proper exposure. Learning this balancing act can take years to truly master and in further posts I will go deeper into how to figure out how to get the best exposure possible for any situation.
- Exposure is the amount of light captured on your sensor or film
- Not enough light = underexposed
- Too much light = overexposed
- Aperture is the hole in your lens that lets in different amounts of light
- A large hole is a small f-stop
- A small hole is a large f-stop
- A large hole creates shallow depth of field (sharp subject, blurry background)
- A shutter opens and closes to expose your sensor for different amounts of time
- A fast shutter speed freezes motion, but lets in less light
- A slow shutter speed lets in a lot of light, but can cause motion blur if subject is not still
- ISO is the amplification of the sensor
- HIGH ISO makes the image brighter, but creates noise
- LOW ISO makes the image darker, but gives you the cleanest result
Photos by Froggie
This is an example of the tutorial style posts you can find on the newly launched Frogman’s Light School. Eventually, we will cover a variety of topics at every skill level, from beginner to advanced, so keep checking back.
If you’ve been wanting to brush up on your photography skills, follow along!
|—||Unknown (via ohteenscanrelate)|
Join me on a jazzy journey through Mister Rogers Neighborhood…
This morning I was reminded how much I love Mister Rogers (present tense), and how much that show influenced me as a kid. Fred made me the curious adult I am today. Well, Fred and Sesame Street, but I refuse to pick favorites.
I especially remember the above video, about how crayons are made. It must have had a hell of an impact to stick in my noggin after all these years, eh? But as awesome as the story of the classic Crayola 64-pack is (remember the built-in sharpener?), today I want to talk about the music.
I never realized it until now, but most of the “how it’s made” segments on Mister Rogers had no sound. That makes sense, because factories are horribly loud places and are a nightmare to film in. But listen to how the iconic Mister Rogers jazz soundtrack takes the place of sound effects! The clicks and whirrs are really just the drummer using brushes or percussion blocks. And the piano runs match the action so well!
Reminds me of the Dutch filmmaker Bert Haanstra, whose 1958 film Glas won the Oscar for Best Documentary Short. Glas features a bunch of glass-blowers doing their glass-blowing thing, but instead of live sound their motions are blended perfectly with a peppy, beat-driven jazz soundtrack. Watch it below and compare to Mister Rogers:
See the similarities? I wonder if the influence was intentional. The virtuoso pianist behind Mister Rogers iconic jazz arrangements was Mr. Johnny Costa, whose trio recorded the music live as the show was videotaped! It’s pretty progressive music for a children’s show, but I think by pushing the boundaries Rogers and Costa were able to create some really special experiences, and prove that kids have no problem enjoying complex creativity.
Here’s a short chat with Johnny Costa (man, those fingers!) about what it was like to work on Mister Rogers Neighborhood:
Water balloon popped in zero gravity
STOP SHITTING ME
if you don’t want this on your dash, you’re lying
Do the braid
This is just the basics of braiding. If you know these 8 basic braids, you can do billions of differend hairstyles. Here’s a roundup, from top to bottom, left to right. There’s always a link to a basic tutorial and then a few links to hairstyles you can do with that type of braid.
1. Regular, 3-strand braid
2. 4-strand braid
3. Rope braid
4. French braid
5. Fishtail braid
6. 5-strand braid
7. Dutch braid
8. Waterfall braid
This piece at Vice is really worth reading…even though it’s really depressing. But if you were wondering why our government is so ridiculously unable to do anything about gun violence in my country it’s because nearly half of people own guns, a good portion of those are /really/ passionate hobbyists and…
…wait for it…
…there are more guns in this country than there are human beings.